Posted on 6 June 2019

Indigenous Australian Languages - Gamilaraay (or Kamilaroi)

The Gamilaraay (Kamilaroi) people are the Indigenous people of north-eastern NSW and south-western Queensland. They are one of the four largest Indigenous groups in Australia, whose lands traditionally encompassed over 75,000 km2. If you live in NSW, you may have been to Gamilaraay lands – Lightning Ridge, Moree, Tamworth, Narrabri are all on traditional Gamilaraay land, as well as Nindigully in Queensland. The Gamilaraay language includes a number of dialects, including Yuwalaraay. It is considered to be closely related to Ngiyampaa and Wiradjuri, both found further to the south. Gamilaraay is pronounced ‘kamilaroi’, like some versions of the spelling. These spellings are considered interchangeable, with the people often referred to as Kamilaroi, but the language as Gamilaraay. The word Gamilaraay itself has an interesting meaning. Like many of the languages in NSW, it is constructed from two parts – the local word for ‘no’ (gamil) and a suffix that means ‘having (-(b)araay), loosely translating as ‘no-having’. This indicates that the speakers of this language use the word ‘gamil’ to mean ‘no’. Yuwalaraay speakers use ‘waal’ for ‘no’, hence the ‘wal’ in their name. It is an interesting way to distinguish between different language and cultural groups. The Gamilaraay language is an example of a revived and reconstructed Indigenous Australian language. In the 1950s the last fluent speakers died, and for many years the language was considered extinct. But thanks to the continuing efforts of Elders and communities, there are now language learning programs available to the public and resources for individuals and communities wanting to be part of the revitalisation.   Read more: Reviving Indigenous languages – not as easy as it seems (The Conversation)

Posted on 6 June 2019

The ins and outs of spelling bees

As editors of the Macquarie Dictionary, we wear many hats. One of the tasks that comes to us regularly is to create lists of words for spelling bees. This is a monumental undertaking, and one which requires a high level of detail. First, we have the word selection itself There are many thousands of words in Australian English. Selecting those which make up the list for a spelling bee is a herculean task. (There, we’ve just given you a new word to add to your word bank!) We cover a huge range of words, which are quite easy to start with, but progressively get harder and harder. We have a database of words with all sorts of information – level of difficulty, subject area, pronunciation, whether the word has a variant spelling, whether it is a homophone, and so on, as well as information about when it was last used in the competition, whether it was in the Junior or Senior section – it’s pretty complicated! Studying for and participating in spelling bees are, after all, a great opportunity to reinforce the words you already know, but also, to branch out and learn about terms you may not already be familiar with. Then the words need to be graded Many people think that grading is simply based on the length of a word. There are many more factors we look at when deciding on a difficulty level. Some of these include a word has silent letters, double letters, an unexpected or difficult pronunciation, if it comes from another language, or whether the word needs a spelling rule applied. Familiarity is another consideration, but this can vary with life experience – a child who learns music is likely to be fine with crescendo, a word which would stump many spellers, and someone of Italian heritage would find passata and focaccia a breeze. Not so likely for a child of Vietnamese background, who would be fine with pho, and so on. There are also other "fiendishness" factors which come into play but they’re top secret! You can find out more in our podcast, Word for Word. But we do have some tips to help you while you're studying New words Every time you come across an unfamiliar word, you should look it up in the dictionary. Knowing what a word means, and sometimes its origin as well, makes it much easier to remember. Try using it in everyday conversation until you are comfortable with it. Long words Take your time when it comes to long words. Just because a word is long doesn’t necessarily mean that it is harder to spell. Many long words consist of a root word with prefixes and suffixes. It’s easy to lose track of where you are when spelling the word out loud so break it down into syllables and tackle it one syllable at a time. Homophones Homophones are words which sound the same but have different spellings like air and heir. This makes homophones one of the trickiest areas of spelling so make sure you listen to the sentence given so you know which meaning you are being asked to spell.

Posted on 7 May 2019

To cheeseslaw or not to cheeseslaw?

In a nation divided over sausage sandwiches and sausage sizzles, potato scallops and potato cakes, and parmie and parma, it is refreshing to come across a new undiscovered Aussie food icon. We are always looking for new words and encourage you to suggest words and meanings you think should be entered into the Macquarie Dictionary by suggesting them to our editors. Last month, we were thrilled to discover a local resident of Broken Hill had suggested cheeseslaw.

A sandwich filling common in Broken Hill - grated carrot, grated cheese and possibly mayonnaise with some herbs/ onion. Can be toasted. Broken Hillites are proud of this contribution to gastronomy but mostly shunned by others once tried.
We of course, did some investigation and found cheeseslaw (or cheese slaw) as found in Broken Hill and other parts of Australia, to be something of a hidden, and valued, gem. Every region of Australia has some language which is particular to it and it’s always a pleasant discovery for the editors at Macquarie Dictionary to come across such a term. The Macquarie Dictionary’s role is to record language which is in use. The term cheeseslaw, comprising grated carrot, grated cheese, and mayonnaise, has been in frequent use in, and around, the Broken Hill area for a very long time. For this reason, we believe it’s time we share it with the rest of the country.
cheese slaw  noun1. coleslaw with grated cheese. 2. Broken Hill a salad of grated carrot, grated cheese, and mayonnaise.  Also, cheeseslaw. [modelled on COLESLAW]
We would love to hear more local cuisines for consideration as entries. We also encourage you to explore our Australian Word Map for a plethora of community-sourced words and definitions unique to Australian English.